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Potassium dichromate toxicology, by Edouard Bastarache
- CAS No. : 7778-50-9
- Chemical formula :
- Molecular weight : 294.18
- MAIN SYNONYMS :
- French names :
- Bichromate de
- Dichromate de
- English names
- Dichromic acid
- Dipotassium salt
- Potassium bichromate
- Dipotassium dichromate
- USES AND SOURCES OF
- Manufacture of paints, inks
and in ceramics.
- HYGIENE AND SAFETY
- I. Physical and
Chemical Properties :
- Appearance :
Orange-red crystals or powder
- Odor : Odorless.
- Solubility : 6.5% @
10C (50F) in water.
- Specific gravity :
2.676 @ 25C/4C
- pH : 4.04 (1% aq.
solution) 3.57 (10% aq. solution)
- % Volatiles by volume @
21C (70F) : 0
- Boiling point : 500C
- Melting point : 398C
- II. Fire Fighting
- A. Fire :
- Not combustible, but
substance is a strong oxidizer and its heat of
reaction with reducing agents or combustibles may
cause ignition. Releases oxygen, upon decomposition,
which enhances combustion.
- B. Explosion :
- Contact with oxidizable
substances may cause extremely violent combustion.
- C. Fire extinguishing
- Flood with large amounts of
water. Water spray may be used to keep fire exposed
containers cool. Do not allow water runoff to enter
sewers or waterways.
- D. Special information
- In the event of a fire, wear
full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved
self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece
operated in the pressure demand or other positive
- I. Stability and
- A. Stability :
- Stable under ordinary
conditions of use and storage.
- B. Hazardous
decomposition products :
- Burning may produce chrome
- C. Hazardous
- Will not occur.
- D. Incompatibilities :
- Reducing agents, acetone
plus sulfuric acid, boron plus silicon, ethylene
glycol, iron, hydrazine, and hydroxylamine. Any
combustible, organic or other readily oxidizable
material (paper, wood, sulfur, aluminum or plastics).
- E. Conditions to avoid :
- Heat, incompatibles.
- II. Handling and
- Protect against physical
damage. Store in a dry location separate from
combustible, organic or other readily oxidizable
materials. Avoid storage on wood floors. Remove and
dispose of any spilled dichromates; do not return to
original containers. Wear special protective equipment
for maintenance break-in or where exposures may exceed
established exposure levels. Wash hands, face,
forearms and neck when exiting restricted areas.
Shower, dispose of outer clothing, change to clean
garments at the end of the day. Avoid
cross-contamination of street clothes. Wash hands
before eating and do not eat, drink, or smoke in
workplace. Containers of this material may be
hazardous when empty since they retain product
residues (dust, solids); observe all warnings and
precautions listed for the product.
- III. Accidental Release
- Ventilate area of leak or
spill. Wear appropriate personal protective
- Spills : Sweep up and
containerize for reclamation or disposal. Vacuuming or
wet sweeping may be used to avoid dust dispersal.
- IV. Exposure
Controls/Personal Protection :
- A. Ventilation System :
- A system of local and/or
general exhaust is recommended to keep employee
exposures below the Airborne Exposure Limits. Local
exhaust ventilation is generally preferred because it
can control the emissions of the contaminant at its
source, preventing dispersion of it into the general
- If the exposure limit is
exceeded and engineering controls are not feasible, a
half facepiece particulate respirator (NIOSH type N95
or better filters) may be worn for up to ten times the
exposure limit or the maximum use concentration
specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or
respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. A full-face
piece particulate respirator (NIOSH type N100 filters)
may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit, or the
maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate
regulatory agency, or respirator supplier, whichever
- If oil particles (e.g.
lubricants, cutting fluids, glycerine, etc.) are
present, use a NIOSH type R or P filter.
- For emergencies or instances
where the exposure levels are not known, use a
full-facepiece positive-pressure, air-supplied
- WARNING: Air-purifying
respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient
- B. Skin Protection :
- Wear impervious protective
clothing, including boots, gloves, lab coat, apron or
coveralls, as appropriate, to prevent skin contact.
- C. Eye Protection :
- Use chemical safety goggles
and/or full face shield where dusting or splashing of
solutions is possible. Maintain eye wash fountain and
quick-drench facilities in work area.
- V. Disposal
- Whatever cannot be saved for
recovery or recycling should be handled as hazardous
waste and sent to an approved waste facility.
Processing, use or contamination of this product may
change the waste management options. State and local
disposal regulations may differ from federal disposal
regulations. Dispose of container and unused contents
in accordance with federal, state and local
- TOXICOLOGY :
- I. Experimental
- Oral rat LD50 : 25 mg/kg.
- Skin rabbit LD50 : 14
- II. Acute Effects
- A. Inhalation
- Corrosive. Extremely
destructive to tissues of the mucous membranes and
upper respiratory tract. Symptoms may include
- - sore throat
- - coughing
- - shortness of breath
- - and labored breathing
- Higher exposures may cause
- B. Ingestion :
- Corrosive. Swallowing
can cause severe burns of the mouth, throat, and
stomach, leading to death. Can cause sore throat,
vomiting, diarrhea. May cause violent gastroenteritis,
peripheral vascular collapse, dizziness, intense
thirst, muscle cramps, shock, coma, abnormal bleeding,
fever, liver damage and acute renal failure.
- C. Skin Contact :
- Corrosive. Symptoms
of redness, pain, and severe burn can occur. Dusts and
strong solutions may cause severe irritation. Contact
with broken skin may cause ulcers (chrome sores) and
absorption, which may cause systemic poisoning,
affecting kidney and liver functions. May cause skin
sensitization. May be absorbed through the skin;
symptoms may parallel ingestion.
- D. Eye Contact :
- Corrosive. Contact
can cause blurred vision, redness, pain and severe
tissue burns. May cause corneal injury or
- III. Chronic Effects
- Repeated or prolonged
exposure can cause ulceration and perforation of the
nasal septum, respiratory irritation, liver and kidney
damage and ulceration of the skin. Ulcerations at
first may be painless, but may penetrate to the bone
producing "chrome holes."
- IV. Aggravation of
Pre-existing Conditions :
- Persons with pre-existing
skin disorders, asthma, allergies or known
sensitization to chromic acid or chromates may be more
susceptible to the effects of this material.
- V. Pregnancy
- A. Effects on development
- It has an embryotoxic and/or
foetotoxic effect in the animal.
- It crosses the placenta in
- B. Effects on
- It may cause effects in the
testicles of animals.
- C. Data on mother's milk :
- There are no data concerning
its excretion or detection in mother's
- VI. Carcinogenic
- Known to be a human
- VII. Mutagenic Effects
- Demonstrated mutagenic
effects in the animal or suspected in man.
- VIII. Sensitization
- This product causes
respiratory and skin sensitization.
- FIRST AID MEASURE
- I. Inhalation :
- Remove to fresh air. If not
breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing
is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention
- II. Ingestion :
- If swallowed, DO NOT INDUCE
VOMITING. Give large quantities of water. Never give
anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get
medical attention immediately.
- III. Skin Contact
- Immediately flush skin with
plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing
contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical attention
immediately. Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly
clean shoes before reuse.
- IV. Eye Contact :
- Immediately flush eyes with
plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting lower
and upper eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention
- ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
- I. Environmental Fate
- When released into the soil,
this material may leach into groundwater. When
released into water, this material is not expected to
evaporate significantly. This material may
bioaccumulate to some extent. When released into the
air, this material may be removed from the atmosphere
to a moderate extent by wet deposition.
- II. Environmental
- No information found.
- EXPOSURE LIMIT IN
- Valeur d'Exposition
Moyenne Pondérée (VEMP)
- 0,05 mg/m³ (expressed
- 1. Chemical Hazards of
the Workplace, Proctor & Hughes, 4th
- 2. Clinical Environmental
Health and Toxic Exposures, Sullivan & Krieger;
- 3. CSST-Québec,
- 4. J.T. Baker, MSDS,
- 5. Occupational Medicine,
Zenz C., third edition.
- 6. Sax's Dangerous
Properties of Industrial Materials, Lewis C., 10th
- 7. Toxicologie
Industrielle et Intoxications Professionnelles,
Lauwerys R.R., 4th edition.
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